- third-person singular of flounder
Flounder (rarely: flukes) are flatfish that live in ocean waters ie., Northern Atlantic and waters along the east coast of the United States and Canada, and the Pacific Ocean, as well. The name "flounder" refers to several geographically and taxonomically distinct species. In Europe, the name flounder refers to Platichthys flesus, in the Western Atlantic there are the summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus, southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma, and the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, among other species. In Japan, the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is common.
While flounders have both eyes situated on one side of the head, flukes are not born this way. Their life involves metamorphosis. During metamorphosis, one eye migrates to the other side of the body so that both eyes are situated on the upward-facing side of its body. After metamorphosis, flounder lie on one side on the ocean floor; either the left or right side might face upward depending on the species. Flounder sizes typically vary from five to fifteen inches, though they sometimes grow as large as three feet in length. Their breadth is about one-half of their length. Flounder are ambush predators and their feeding ground is the soft mud of the sea bottom, near bridge piles, docks, and other bottom encumbrances; they are sometimes found on bass grounds as well. Their diet consists mainly of fish spawn, crustaceans, polychaetes and small fish.
Surprise findingAmong other sea creatures, Flounders were found at the bottom of Marianas trench, the deepest location on the earth's crust. Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lt. Don Walsh reached a depth of 10,900 meters (35,810 feet) and were surprised to discover soles or flounder about 30 cm (1 ft) long, as well as shrimp there.
HistoryHough's Neck in Quincy, Massachusetts was once considered the "Flounder capital of the world" due to the abundance of the species there. Pollution levels in Boston Harbor during the 1980s have depleted the population, but there have been signs of a comeback.
ThreatsWorld stocks of large predatory fish and large ground fish such as sole and flounder were estimated in 2003 to be only about 10% of pre-industrial levels, largely due to overfishing. Most overfishing is credited to the commercial fisherman. Current estimates suggest that approximately 30 million flounder (not including sole) are alive in the world today. However, new research suggests that the flounder population could be as low as 15 million due to heavy over-fishing and industrial pollution risks along the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
According to Seafood Watch, Atlantic flounder and sole are currently on the list of seafood that sustainability-minded consumers should avoid.
Flounder familiesThe fishes in the following families are called "flounders". All the families belong to the order Pleuronectiformes of flatfishes.
flounders in Danish: Skrubbe
flounders in German: Flunder
flounders in Esperanto: Fleso
flounders in Persian: پهنماهی
flounders in French: Flet
flounders in Ido: Flundro
flounders in Italian: Sogliola
flounders in Lithuanian: Plekšnės
flounders in Dutch: Bot (vis)
flounders in Japanese: ヒラメ
flounders in Norwegian: Skrubbe
flounders in Norwegian Nynorsk: Skrubbe
flounders in Polish: Flądra
flounders in Northern Sami: Finddar
flounders in Finnish: Kampela
flounders in Swedish: Skrubbskädda
flounders in Tagalog: Tatampal (isda)
flounders in Turkish: Bayağı pisi balığı